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No 2
Vol. 2 No. 2
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Ilmenite occurs in black sand at the mouth of great rivers as in India or as massive deposits like in Quebec, Canada. It is unsuitable for processing into pigment or for metal production because of its low grade. Electric furnace and hydrometallurgical methods have been developed to cope with this problem which resulted in the production of two commercial products that became known as titanium slag and synthetic rutile, respectively. The discovery that low grade ilmenite can be leached at 80oC with HCl from which synthetic rutile containing ~95% TiO2 can be precipitated renders questionable the electric furnace for treating high grade ilmenite to produce slag containing not more than 80% TiO2.
Fathi Habashi
Keywords : Ilmenite ، Hydrometallurgy ، Rutile ، TiO2 ،
In this article, modeling of hydraulic separator as a gravity separator in mineral processing industry was taken into consideration. In this regard, crucial issues towards understanding minerals separation within the separator were deeply regarded. All parameters which could contribute to particle separation were comprehensively discussed. Besides, various proposed models concerning particles separation by the separator were illustrated as well as new assumptions in order of improvement the previous published models were introduced through which a new model can be developed
Dariush Azizi - Ali Entezari Zarandi
Keywords : Hydraulic Separator ، Modeling ، Particle Separation ، Hindered Settling ،
One of the silver resources is Cu-Mo porphyry deposits, producing silver as by product. The purpose of this study is the investigation of geochemical behavior of silver element in Hararan area, which is located in the southeast of Iran and consists of copper mineralization seems to be connected to a porphyry Cu-Mo system. For this research, the results of analysis of 607 lithogeochemical samples for W, Zn, Ag, As, Ba, Co, Cu, Mo, Pb, Sb, Sn, Sr, Bi elements were used. In this study, it was applied gap statistics and multivariate analysis techniques for identification anomalous areas of silver element and its associated elements. Anomalous areas maps achieved of gap statistics method showed that anomalous areas of Ag, Cu, Pb and zinc elements covered approximately each other. Dendrogram, which was earn from hierarchical cluster analysis, depict that Ag and Cu elements have associated with each other and formed one cluster. Although these elements are linked to Pb and Zn elements with lower correlation. The results of factor analysis showed that the third factor include Cu and Ag elements with the highest eigenvalues. Consequently, geochemical bimodal behavior of Ag element i.e. accompaniment with Cu element by locating in chalcopyrite mineral from one side and accompaniment with Pb and Zn elements by locating in galen and sphalerite minerals from other side was validated by using gap statistics and multivariate analysis techniques.
Somaie Abbaszadeh - amirhossein Kouhsari
Keywords : Ag Element ، Gap Statistics ، Factor Analysis ، Hierarchical Cluster Analysis ،
This paper reviews empirical methods to estimate deformation modulus as one of the most important parameters required to build numerical models for many rock engineering projects such as slope stability, dams, tunneling and underground excavations. This parameter can be obtained by field tests directly, but these are time consuming and expensive. Therefore, an indirect method can be useful for engineering projects. Usually, the empirical estimations are presented using regression methods such as linear, nonlinear, power and polynomial function. On the other hand, some researchers used soft computing techniques including ANN and GP. The aim of all studies is to presenting an equation based on intact rock properties and classification systems. In the early studies, RMR classification system was used for prediction. Then, some researchers used other classification systems like Q and GSI in addition to RMR. Recently, studies are carried out using intact rock properties such as modulus of elasticity, UCS and joint properties by regression methods and soft computing techniques. Consequently, we have several equations that can improve the understanding of rock masses.
alireza Jabinpour - Ali Azimi
Keywords : Deformation Modulus ، Empirical Estimation ، RMR ، Q ، GSI ،
Coal is a significant ore to produce energy. From past to now, coal was used in steel and energy industries. The coal seams were often located in high depth which should be exploited by underground mining methods like longwall and room and pillar methods. Thick coal seams with 6 meters thickness cannot be exploited by conventional methods, thus, we need a new method in order to extract coal from thick coal seams. In this study, a review of Longwall Top Coal Caving (LTCC) is presented to introduce LTCC and explain important issues in that field. LTCC was made by combination of longwall and sublevel caving methods. In thick seams, bottom is mined by longwall and top coal is exploited by sublevel caving. This method was developed in China after 1982 and used for high thick and depth coal seams. LTCC is a high production and low cost method but have a highly dependent to seam condition. To explain the importance of LTCC method, we tried to summarize most of studies in this field. Firstly, some cases were introduced. After that, feasibility of LTCC was assessed. To apply LTCC, we faced to inherent properties of coal seam like coal thickness, dip, strength and depth, consequently properties of support system and detailed geology studies were required. This study showed that LTCC is a good choice for high thick seams that located in high depth.
alireza Jabinpour
Keywords : Coal Seams ، Underground Mining ، Longwall ، Top Coal ، Cavability ، Recovery

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